Day 4 Hanoi - Hue (B/L) (650km – 1h00: by plane) After breakfast, transfer to the airport to take your morning flight to Hue. Between 1802 and 1945, Hue was the imperial capital of the Nguyen Dynasty. As such, it is well known for its monuments and architecture. Its population stands at about 340,000 people...
Day 1 HANOI arrival (D) When arriving, welcome at the airport and transfer to your selected hotel. Visit the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum (outside), his former residence, One Pillar Pagoda, Temple of Literature, Hoan Kiem Lake,...
Day 1 HANOI - arrival
When arriving in Hanoi, transfer to your selected hotel. Overnight in Hanoi. Day 2 HANOI (B/L)...
Hotels in Vietnam
The life ahead‘Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art. ’John KeatsThe energy from the Sun released at its centre is radiated as photons (light particles). But a photon has a long way to travel before it reaches the star’s surface and escapes into interplanetary space, where it will ruffle comet’s tails and heat the glacial crusts of planets. Contrary to what one might expect, a photon emitted at the centre of the Sun and travelling at a velocity of nearly 300 000 km/s does not take 2.3 seconds to travel the 700 000 kilometres to the surface. On average it takes 10 million years to cover thisdistance. The light that we receive on Earth now left the Sun’s surface 8 minutes ago, but it was produced in the Sun s core when primates and mastodons walked on an Africa still separated from Eurasia.The explanation is simple: instead of travelling in a straight line, the photon is constantly deviated from its trajectory by collisions with innumerable electrons, which are the main components of stellar matter along with protons. If the Sun’s core were suddenly extinguished the light from it would continue to reach us for another 10 million years.The stars therefore lead lives of perfectly regulated routine. Nearly all the stars seen in the sky, with the naked eye or telescope, are mature stars like the Sun, vigorously burning the hydrogen in their cores. This phase of great stability lasts 99% of a star’s nuclear lifetime and is called the Main Sequence . Our Sun has been quietly following this Sequence for the past 5 billion years, converting its hydrogen into helium. It is halfway through its life.‘Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art. ’John KeatsRead more... Link
After the Industrial Revolution, the northern nations of Western Europe experienced a surge of economic growth. But because the Mediterranean countries were lacking in rich resources, trade, and advances in technology and production, they were slower to develop. The situation changed in the 1980’s. As more Europeans flocked to the Mediterranean sunbelt, local business expanded and foreign business moved in. Industrialization and prosperity increased dramatically, especially in Italy and Spain. Nevertheless, unemployment in Southern Europe remains high and many people emigrate or work in more prosperous countries.Read more... Link
Most of the land in the Middle East and North Africa has one thing in common. It is very dry. The places that receive the most rain are in the highlands and along the coasts. The nearer a place is to the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, or the Caspian Sea, the more rain it gets. As you travel east and south from the Mediterranean, the land grows drier and drier.A Land of DesertsMore than a third of the Middle East and North Africa is desert. The deserts of these regions receive less than 10 inches (25 centimeters) of rain in a year. Daytime temperatures may rise well above 100°F (38°C).The deserts, however, are not all alike. For example, the Sahara in North Africa is mostly flat gravel plains. On the other hand, the Empty Quarter, an area in southcentral Saudi Arabia, is nearly all sand, with huge, mountainlike dunes.In the desert, heat and glaring light reflect off the rocks and sand. Scorching blasts of air raise twirling puffs of sand called dust devils. At night, the desert cools down quickly. Night skies are beautiful, with the moon and stars brilliant in the cloudless blackness.Life in the desert centers around the oases, or places with water. Usually the water in an oasis comes from an underground spring. In ancient times, trade routes passing through the deserts stopped to rest at the oases.People who live in the desert still trade at the villages built around oases. Desert people depend on these oases for water for themselves and their sheep, goats, and camels. These animals are traded for grain and other necessities. Thousands of years ago, the people of the Middle East and North Africa learned to use animals that could withstand the harsh conditions of the desert. Camels, in particular, were found to be well suited to desert life because they can go for weeks at a time without food and water.Nowadays motor vehicles are a familiar sight in the desert but, in the past, camels provided transportation as well as food, fuel, shelter, and clothing. For example, camel meat, milk, and the cheese made from camel milk were all common foods in the desert. Fat from the hump of the hide made warm clothing. Camel hides were also made into waterbags and tents.Living near Water Today few people in the Middle East and North Africa actually live in the desert. Most people live in farm villages or cities that are found in the river valleys and along the seacoasts.North Africa In Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Libya, almost everyone lives near the Mediterranean. The climate is much like that of Spain, Greece, and other Mediterranean countries. Sum¬mers are hot and dry. During cooler win¬ters, storms moving from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean bring some welcome rain. When it does rain, dry riverbeds called wadis fill quickly with water. Life springs up briefly around them. Then the water is gone as suddenly as it came.Egypt too would be a desert if it were not for the life-giving waters of the Nile River. Most people in Egypt live within a short distance of the river. Beyond the Nile Valley, the land is almost empty. Only 4 percent of the land in Egypt is usable, which creates constant challenges for the fast-growing population.Southwest Asia East and south of Egypt is the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia. The Arabian Peninsula lies between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Nearly the whole peninsula is desert.Saudi Arabia, the largest country on the peninsula, has no permanent rivers or lakes. Like the countries of the Sahara, it has wadis that fill up suddenly with water when it rains and empty again just as suddenly. Now the Saudi Arabian’s are working on ways to store water.Across the northern part of Southwest Asia, a rugged belt of mountains runs from Turkey to Iran. Turkey also has a central highlands area known as the Anatolian Plateau. The streams that flow out of these highlands bring water to the lands to the south. These lands are sometimes called the Fertile Crescent. The Fertile Crescent is an arc of land that stretches from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The people of many early civilizations learned to farm in the Fertile Crescent’s rich soil. Coping with the ClimatePeople have learned to live in the harsh, dry climates of the Middle East and North Africa. Long ago they learned to build houses that are comfortable even on very hot days. These houses usually have flat roofs because there is little rain. The thick walls are often made of whitewashed brick or mud, whose light colors reflect heat. High ceilings let warm air rise away from the levels where people work or sleep. Windows are small to keep out heat and the dry, dusty winds.Many farmers in the Middle East and North Africa must rely on irrigation in order to raise their crops. In Egypt, farmers use the waters of the Nile to irrigate. In Iran, farmers dug underground channels to carry mountain water to their farms in the villages below. Elsewhere people build large, stone storage pools to save whatever water falls as rain.Most of the land in the Middle East and North Africa has one thing in common. It is very dry. The places that receive the most rain are in the highlands and along the coasts. The nearer a place is to the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, or the Caspian Sea, the more rain it gets. As you travel east and south from the Mediterranean, the land grows drier and drier.Read more... Link
At the end of the eighteenth century, the Reverend John Michell and Pierre Simon Laplace combined the idea of a finite velocity of light with Newton’s concept of an escape velocity, and discovered the most fascinating consequence of gravitational attraction: the black hole.Read more... Link
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The leading United Arab Emirates-based newspaper Gulf News on August 20 ran an article entitled “Discover Vietnam” by Skhan Kar, deputy editor in chief of Gulf News’s photo magazine.
The illustrated three-page article featured Vietnam as an ideal attraction for foreign tourists with famous landscapes such as Ha Long Bay, Sa Pa, and Hanoi.
A few days ago, on August 14 and 16, a 30-minute TV programme about Vietnam was broadcast on Slovakia’s Television Station TA3.
The programme highlighted Vietnam’s good hotel services and famous tourist attractions in the northern mountainous region.
It also quoted Branislav Stefanik, a tourist who has been to Vietnam many times, as saying that despite a lot of difficulties, Vietnam has achieved fast economic growth.
Vietnamese people are very hard-working, open-hearted, friendly, and active, he said.
The programme also provided TV viewers with necessary information related to Vietnam’s entry/exit and customs regulations.